Jute yarn, also known as golden fibre, stands as a prominent choice in the realm of carpet weaving. Several carpet production companies incorporate jute yarn, primarily utilizing it as carpet weft. This natural fiber, derived from the jute plant, plays a crucial role in various types of machine carpets, including those with 1,200, 1,000, 500, and 700 comb machines.
Despite technological advancements and the introduction of synthetic fibers, jute yarn continues to maintain its global popularity. The quality of jute yarn becomes paramount for machine carpet manufacturers, directly influencing the carpet’s overall quality as it is used in the core or weft of the carpet.
The selection of jute yarn for carpets is influenced by the model of the weaving machine, categorized into CRT, CRM, CRX, and CB grades, each offering different thickness levels.
The Origin and Production of Jute Yarn
Jute, also known as Indian hemp, is an annual plant with long, soft, and shiny fibers. The major producers of jute yarn are Bangladesh and India. The cultivation of jute requires specific environmental conditions, including hot weather, 70-80% humidity, weekly rainfall of 5-8 cm, and temperatures between 20-40 degrees Celsius.
Jute yarn production involves meticulous processes, from retting to spinning. The plant’s fibers, composed of cellulose and lignin, contribute to its robust and versatile nature. Besides being biodegradable, jute yarn boasts insulating and anti-static properties, making it a preferred choice in various applications such as curtains, seat covers, carpets, rugs, and the textile industry.
Apart from India and Bangladesh, other notable jute producers include China, Myanmar, Uzbekistan, Nepal, Vietnam, Egypt, and Thailand.
Diverse Types of Jute Yarn
Advancements in technology have led to the production of various types of jute yarn, each tailored for specific applications. These types include various threads, fine threads, heavier threads, 100% jute yarn, strings and ropes, fine threads with a score of 4 LBS and below, commercial threads, technical threads, mixed threads, and special threads like bulky, covering, and fancy.
Methods for Assessing Jute Yarn Quality
The assessment of jute yarn quality involves both direct and indirect methods. The direct method, established in the 15th century, measures the mass per unit length, directly correlating with the yarn grade. The indirect method, more traditional, varies regionally and measures the yarn in units of length.
The Production Process and Basic Operations
Jute yarn production undergoes stages such as retting, environmental adaptation, spinning, and more. The basic operations involve softening, filling, carding, stretching, and spinning. The strength of jute yarn depends on fiber properties, and longer fibers contribute to a stronger yarn.
Controlling Fiber Distribution and Yarn Unevenness
Controlling the longitudinal distribution of fibers during jute yarn spinning is crucial for maintaining quality. Due to the presence of short fibers, ensuring a uniform yarn equivalent to cotton threads requires meticulous control.
Reducing yarn unevenness involves factors like applying proper tension, ensuring final tension uniformity, minimizing the distance between tension rollers, and creating optimal adhesion in the wick.
In conclusion, understanding the nuances of jute yarn and its production processes is pivotal for achieving high-quality machine carpets in the textile industry.